What is " go short " & " go long "?

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You “Go short” or “Go long” over an equity(share or stock) or an index.

When you go long, you are buying the equity and expect the price to go up from the purchase price. You expect the price to go up, so that you can sell at a higher price. The difference would be your profit.

When you go short, you are selling the equity and expect the price to go down from the purchase price. You expect the price to go down, so that you can buy back at a lower price. The difference would be your profit.

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LONG = BUY

SHORT=SELL

may be equity/commodity/fo/currency

To add to Chinmay, you go short when you sell without owning and only with the expectation that the price will come lower and you will buy back to profit.